Proximate and ultimate consequences of polyandry in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Proximate and ultimate consequences of polyandry in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Effects of inbreeding depression, direct costs, mating constraints, and polyandry as a threshold trait. Evolution , 70 9 , pp. Abstract Polyandry is often hypothesized to evolve to allow females to adjust the degree to which they inbreed. Multiple factors might affect such evolution, including inbreeding depression, direct costs, constraints on male availability, and the nature of polyandry as a threshold trait. Complex models are required to evaluate when evolution of polyandry to adjust inbreeding is predicted to arise. We used a genetically explicit individual-based model to track the joint evolution of inbreeding strategy and polyandry defined as a polygenic threshold trait. Evolution of polyandry to avoid inbreeding only occurred given strong inbreeding depression, low direct costs, and severe restrictions on initial versus additional male availability. Evolution of polyandry to prefer inbreeding only occurred given zero inbreeding depression and direct costs, and given similarly severe restrictions on male availability. However, due to its threshold nature, phenotypic polyandry was frequently expressed even when strongly selected against and hence maladaptive.

Polyandry and the Decrease of a Selfish Genetic Element in a Wild House Mouse Population

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Despite deleterious effects on individuals, the t haplotype is a selfish genetic element present in many house mouse populations. Theoretical models based on these properties predict a much higher t frequency than observed, leading to the t paradox. Here, we use empirical field data and theoretical approaches to investigate whether polyandry is a female counterstrategy against the negative fitness consequences of such distorters. We found a significant decrease of the t frequency over a period of 5.

We quantified life-history data and homozygous and heterozygous fitness effects.

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